Software Programming – Some Fundamentals You Should Know

We are using internet effectively without more strain, the programmers and web developers think
a lot to program the software and develop the web application in an interactive manner, which
help us to use more user friendly. It is not easy to create the codes and tags easily. We must need
a good programming skill to do it.

Really software programmers and web developers doing a great work to compose nice software
and programs, with their hard work we are enjoying the online sites and other software easily.
Most of us come across to various programming language like C,C++, Basic, COBOL, Fortran,
HTML, Javascript and so on. Some of us having troubles with this kind of programming
languages, as it is not easy to compose programs in various languages without proper
understanding.

We can develop program and software based on our interest, if we are interested in programming
and give our full focus with it, we can create an interactive software from our own without more
effort. But most of us are interested in using built in functions and software and enjoy a lot while
using it. We don't think more about the programming structures and the codes involved in our
online sites.

Software Engineers

Software Engineers are skilled person and develop various things with their knowledge. Most of
the time they think about programs and software developing method and talk about it to their
friends. One of my friend is a programmer in an IT company and most of the time he is talking
about his new programs and softwares. All the time he think about his work and his brain
thinking about a new program, some of my friends keep distance from him, as he always talk
about his work and programming activities.
As software and programming requires a lot of mental activities, so most of the software and
web developers think about their software and programming activities forever and forget about
other things.

Do you have this kind of software programing friends? What is your opinion about them? They
are thinking a lot about their profession and spending a lot of time in thinking about the
programming and development. Are you interested in software programming?

Programming Fundamentals

The basic programming concepts that willl be discussed here are applicable to all programming
language.
The syntax and usage of them varies from one language to another language.
This is just to make all familiar with the basic fundas and techniques used. All who are familliar
with programming might find this too easy to start but I am writing this for starters so that once
this gets done they can jump to any sort of language and find all same..

I am quiet comfortable with C so will be using it most of the time to go through some lines. @
all who know programming plzzz keep on adding to this basic with refrences from other
languages and all starters keep on posting feedback as u r understanding the flow and the
methods. Believe me once u go through this understanding any language is gonna take u just
weeks time bcoz as said earlier its only syntax that changes not the fundamentals…
NOTE: C is used as the language to teach Programming Fundamentals. Programming
Fundamentals does not cover all aspects of C. A person proficient in C can easily pick up other
languages.
the entire tut has been compiled from many sources and been put together from a beginners
perspective….. DEVIL

So here we go …

Its during the coding phase of the SDLC (software development life cycle) life where one needs to
write program using the specifications given. While writing
programs there are lot of approaches used by the programmers.
There are broadly two programming models:
(1) From the end users perspective: There are 2 types of approaches –
Sequential programming and Event Driven Programming
(2) From the programmers view point : There are 2 types of approaches –
Structured programming and Object oriented programming
Structured programming is built on systematically breaking down the problem into modules The
programs are organized into modules that are coded using independent functions and data.
Eg. BASIC/ FORTRAN/ MSDOS programs

Definition of Structured Programming: A technique for organizing and coding computer
programs in which a hierarchy of modules is used, each having a single entry and a single exit
point, and in which control is passed
downward through the structure without unconditional branches to higher levels of the structure.
Object oriented programming style results in programs that are organized
into objects that encapsulate functions and data.
Eg. C++ / Java / Windows programming.

Sequential programming results in programs that allow the user to follow a predefined sequence
of events. For example if there is a structured program written to accept student info the
sequence in which this input is prompted is
fixed. Any user using the application has to necessarily enter the input in that sequence only.
Eg. MSDOS programs/CUI (Character User Interface) applications
Event driven programming – the user can control the flow of events and may choose the
sequence of events. In such cases the UI is displayed to the user. User is then allowed to enter the
input in the sequence which the user
wants. The program waits for the user to send a message (by raising a event) which is processed
and the program proceeds with execution.
Eg. Windows/GUI (Graphical User Interface) programs
these may seem useless but these approaches need to be crystal clear as this tells programmer
what he is supposed to do.

HISTORY AND FEATURES OF c

As said i am goin to use C as reference. All are requested to add other refrences as thats gonna
help all a lot..
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in the1970s.
C is often called a middle-level computer (I read in many books as high level and some as
middle level — but the explanation of middle level seems satisfactory) language as it combines
the elements of high-level languages with the functionalism and flexibility of assembly language.
C is a portable language:
Programs written in C (with careful design) are compiled to object code that can be executed
independent of any computer system. Hence C is called a portable language.
Structured programming: A technique for organizing and coding computer programs in which a
hierarchy of modules is used, each having a single entry and a single exit point, and in which
control is passed downward through the structure without unconditional branches to higher levels
of the
structure.
Three types of control flow are used: sequential, test, and iteration.
A style of programming usually associated with languages such as C,

Fortran, Pascal and so on. Using structured programming techniques, a problem is often solved
using a divide and conquer approach such as stepwise refinement. An initially large problem is
broken into several smaller
sub-problems. Each of these is then progressively broken into even smaller sub-problems, until
the level of difficulty is considered to be manageable. At the lowest level, a solution is
implemented in terms of data structures and
procedures.

**********************************************************

I have decided to upload all the basic concepts as one document that is so short that u will
require less than 3 hours to understand it thorughly if u are completely new to programming.
though many of depth concepts as y c is platform independent,memory required by data and how
its stored, wats obj and class file as I think that would be better if explained as completely
another look and would do it soon..
Go through this b4 going for any big book or learn in 21 days tut by sams as I believ that it is the
shortest possible way to start.
Also I have a list of programs that is goona clear all ur doubts about the above programming
concepts which I would UPLOAD after some modifications.
this TUTs are dedicated to my professor who taught me the magic of programming and my
friends who helped me get all the required stuffs to compile this tut.

By Philip Anderson